Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Too many unaddressed questions The best part is the beginning, where she lays out the lessons of her experience working on farm worker pesticide exposures. As she dipped into areas where she has no expertise, I found myself often saying, "Yes, but. If we can't convince each other, we certainly can't win over a working class that Too many unaddressed questions The best part is the beginning, where she lays out the lessons of her experience working on farm worker pesticide exposures. If we can't convince each other, we certainly can't win over a working class that would vote for Trump.
Laura Galligan rated it it was amazing Jul 19, Steve Todd rated it it was amazing Jun 05, Jan Den rated it it was amazing Dec 02, Mikael Hall marked it as to-read Jun 06, Rustom marked it as to-read Jun 11, Jonas is currently reading it Jul 03, Patrick marked it as to-read Aug 10, Dash marked it as to-read Oct 08, Bonnie Shipman marked it as to-read Dec 10, Steve added it Apr 22, Bethany Smith marked it as to-read Oct 14, Madeline Bourette-Knowles marked it as to-read Feb 01, Gabe marked it as to-read Mar 22, Lynda Connor is currently reading it Jun 19, Ina Cawl marked it as to-read Aug 26, Inam marked it as to-read Aug 26, I refuse on principle to do this.
A woman in Alabama has been charged with manslaughter for getting shot while pregnant. The state treats the fetus as a person. More information. This is the natural conclusion of the twisted premises of those who treat fetuses as sacred. But the problem may be broader than that. Suppose she had been shot while carrying a three-year-old child in her arms? Suppose someone else had shot at her and killed the child. Facebook treats the video moderators like shit. And that's in addition to the depression they feel from watching the videos. The article gives no evidence that Utley's death was caused by his job, but the way the managers treated it is despicable even if they did not cause it.
Naturally, these workers are subcontracted, so that Facebook can deny responsibility for how they are treated. But Facebook is in fact responsible: it demands contractors offer a low price, which they achieve by treating the workers like shit. We need laws to hold companies like Facebook responsible for the treatment of indirect workers, and give them employee rights such as sick leave. It should be a felony for employees of a company to ask a worker to sign a nondisclosure agreement covering any aspect of the working conditions, benefits, or pay.
If you can see this, your browser does not support iframes. You can see the pol-notes on the pol-notes pages. See the current pol-notes page for more. You may need to scroll down for more text if there is blank space in this column. Copy this button courtesy of R. Siddharth to express your rejection of Facebook. Facebook's face recognition demonstrates a threat to everyone's privacy. I therefore ask people not to put photos of me on Facebook; you can do likewise. Of course, Facebook is bad for many other reasons as well.
Boycott Harry Potter Books, Movies, etc. If you live in or have confirmed knowledge of such a country, please send email to rms at gnu. Australia's previous government tried to institute national ID cards, but the Labor government dropped the plan. Switzerland has national ID cards which are optional, but they or some other government ID card are needed for some purposes.
Iceland doesn't have ID cards as such, but they have ID numbers that citizens are forced to use frequently. For example, the national ID number is often required to rent a video or use a gym. Denmark issues non-photo ID cards with a "person number", and many services use this card to identify people. Norway will impose a national biometric ID card. Ireland - national ID card by stealth. Wikipedia has a list of identity card policies by country.
Stay away from certain countries because of their bad immigration policies. Avoid flight connections in these airports because of their treatment of passengers. People often ask how I manage to continue devoting myself to progressive activism such as the free software movement for years without burning out. I disagree with the book on one theoretical point in the last part of the book: we shouldn't think of political activism as being marketing and sales, because those terms refer to business, and politics is something much more important than mere business.
These versions show the same text, without the obstacle. These are my political articles that are not related to the GNU operating system or free software. You can also order copies of my book, 'Free Software, Free Society, 3rd edition' , signed or not signed. Since morality requires freedom, it follows that if morality is real, then freedom must be real too.
Although the conclusion of this argument is stronger than the earlier argument, its premise is more controversial. For instance, it is far from obvious that all rational agents are conscious of the moral law. If they were, how come no one discovered this exact moral law before when Kant wrote the Groundwork? It may just be that we cannot help but believe that the moral law obligates us, in which case we once again end up merely acting as though we are free and as though the moral law is real. For instance, there is no sense in which I am obligated to single-handedly solve global poverty, because it is not within my power to do so.
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According to Kant, the ultimate aim of a rational moral agent should be to become perfectly moral. We are obligated to strive to become ever more moral. However, Kant holds that moral perfection is something that finite rational agents such as humans can only progress towards, but not actually attain in any finite amount of time, and certainly not within any one human lifetime. This endless progress towards perfection can only be demanded of us if our own existence is endless.
According to Kant, the highest good, that is, the most perfect possible state for a community of rational agents, is not only one in which all agents act in complete conformity with the moral law. It is also a state in which these agents are happy. Kant had argued that although everyone naturally desires to be happy, happiness is only good when one deserves to be happy. In the ideal scenario of a morally perfect community of rational agents, everyone deserves to be happy. Since a deserved happiness is a good thing, the highest good will involve a situation in which everyone acts in complete conformity with the moral law and everyone is completely happy because they deserve to be.
This is where a puzzle arises. Although happiness is connected to morality at the conceptual level when one deserves happiness, there is no natural connection between morality and happiness. Our happiness depends on the natural world for example, whether we are healthy, whether natural disasters affect us , and the natural world operates according to laws that are completely separate from the laws of morality. Accordingly, acting morally is in general no guarantee that nature will make it possible for one to be happy.
And we all have plenty of empirical evidence from the world we live in that often bad things happen to good people and good things happen to bad people. Thus if the highest good in which happiness is proportioned to virtue is possible, then somehow there must be a way for the laws of nature to eventually lead to a situation in which happiness is proportioned to virtue.
Since the laws of nature and the laws of morality are completely separate on their own, the only way that the two could come together such that happiness ends up proportioned to virtue would be if the ultimate cause and ground of nature set up the world in such a way that the laws of nature would eventually lead to the perfect state in question.
Therefore, the possibility of the highest good requires the presupposition that the cause of the world is intelligent and powerful enough to set nature up in the right way, and also that it wills in accordance with justice that eventually the laws of nature will indeed lead to a state in which the happiness of rational agents is proportioned to their virtue.
The natural purpose of humanity is the development of reason. This development is not something that can take place in one individual lifetime, but is instead the ongoing project of humanity across the generations. Nature fosters this goal through both human physiology and human psychology. Humans have no fur, claws, or sharp teeth, and so if we are to be sheltered and fed, we must use our reason to create the tools necessary to satisfy our needs. The frustration brought on by disagreement serves as an incentive to develop our capacity to reason so that we can argue persuasively and convince others to agree with us.
By means of our physiological deficiencies and our unsocial sociability, nature has nudged us, generation by generation, to develop our capacity for reason and slowly to emerge from the hazy fog of pre-history up to the present. This development is not yet complete. Kant takes stock of where we were in his day, in late 18 th c. This is a slow, on-going process. Kant thought that his own age was an age of enlightenment, but not yet a fully enlightened age. The goal of humanity is to reach a point where all interpersonal interactions are conducted in accordance with reason, and hence in accordance with the moral law this is the idea of a kingdom of ends described in 5b above.
Kant thinks that there are two significant conditions that must be in place before such an enlightened age can come to be. First, humans must live in a perfectly just society under a perfectly just constitution. Implicit in this definition is a theory of equality: everyone should be granted the same degree of freedom. Although a state, through the passing and enforcing of laws, necessarily restricts freedom to some degree, Kant argues that this is necessary for the preservation of equality of human freedom.
Hence a fair and lawful coercion that restricts freedom is consistent with and required by maximal and equal degrees of freedom for all.
Kant holds that republicanism is the ideal form of government. In a republic, voters elect representatives and these representatives decide on particular laws on behalf of the people. Kant shows that he was not free of the prejudices of his day, and claims, with little argument, that neither women nor the poor should be full citizens with voting rights. Even though the entire population does not vote on each individual law, a law is said to be just only in case an entire population of rational agents could and would consent to the law.
Among the freedoms that ought to be respected in a just society republican or otherwise are the freedom to pursue happiness in any way one chooses so long as this pursuit does not infringe the rights of others, of course , freedom of religion, and freedom of speech. Kant himself had felt the sting of an infringement on these rights when the government of Friedrich Wilhelm II the successor to Frederick the Great prohibited Kant from publishing anything further on matters pertaining to religion.
The basic idea is that world peace can be achieved only when international relations mirror, in certain respects, the relations between individuals in a just society. Just as people cannot be traded as things, so too states cannot be traded as though they were mere property. Of course, until a state of perpetual peace is reached, wars will be inevitable. Even in times of wars, however, certain laws must be respected. For instance, it is never permissible for hostilities to become so violent as to undermine the possibility of a future peace treaty. Kant argued that republicanism is especially conducive to peace, and he argued that perpetual peace would require that all states be republics.
This is because the people will only consent to a war if they are willing to bear the economic burdens that war brings, and such a cost will only be worthwhile when there is a truly dire threat. If only the will of the monarch is required to go to war, since the monarch will not have to bear the full burden of the war the cost will be distributed among the subjects , there is much less disincentive against war. According to Kant, war is the result of an imbalance or disequilibrium in international relations.
Although wars are never desirable, they lead to new conditions in international relations, and sometimes these new conditions are more balanced than the previous ones. When they are more balanced, there is less chance of new war occurring. Overall then, although the progression is messy and violent along the way, the slow march towards perpetual peace is a process in which all the states of the world slowly work towards a condition of balance and equilibrium.
That is, Kant explains what it is for something to be beautiful by explaining what goes into the judgment that something is beautiful. Kant holds that there are three different types of aesthetic judgments: judgments of the agreeable, of the beautiful, and of the sublime. The first is not particularly interesting, because it pertains simply to whatever objects happen to cause us personally pleasure or pain. There is nothing universal about such judgments. If one person finds botanical gin pleasant and another does not, there is no disagreement, simply different responses to the stimulus.
Judgments of the beautiful and the sublime, however, are more interesting and worth spending some time on. We have an appreciation for the object without desiring it. This contrasts judgments of taste from both cognitions, which represent objects as they are rather than how they affect us, and desires, which represent objects in terms of what we want.
Second, judgments of taste involve universality. When we judge an object to be beautiful, implicit in the judgment is the belief that everyone should judge the object in the same way.
Fourth, judgments of taste involve necessity. When presented with a beautiful object, I take it that I ought to judge it as beautiful. Taken together, the theory is this: when I judge something as beautiful, I enjoy the object without having any desires with respect to it, I believe that everyone should judge the object to be beautiful, I represent some kind of purposiveness in it, but without applying any concepts that would determine its specific purpose, and I also represent myself as being obligated to judge it to be beautiful. Judgments of beauty are thus quite peculiar.
On the one hand, when we say an object is beautiful, it is not the same sort of predication as when I say something is green, is a horse, or fits in a breadbox. Yet it is not for that reason a purely subjective, personal judgment because of the necessity and intersubjective universality involved in such judgments. When I encounter an unfamiliar object, my reflective judgment is set in motion and seeks a concept until I figure out what sort of thing the object is. When I encounter a beautiful object, the form of purposiveness in the object also sets my reflecting judgment in motion, but no determinate concept is ever found for the object.
The experience of this free play of the faculties is the part of the aesthetic experience that we take to be enjoyable. Aside from judgments of taste, there is another important form of aesthetic experience: the experience of the sublime. According to Kant, the experience of the sublime occurs when we face things whether natural or manmade that dwarf the imagination and make us feel tiny and insignificant in comparison.
When we face something so large that we cannot come up with a concept to adequately capture its magnitude, we experience a feeling akin to vertigo. We already have trouble comprehending the enormity of the Milky Way, but when we see an image containing thousands of other galaxies of approximately the same size, the mind cannot even hope to comprehend the immensity of what is depicted.
Although this sort of experience can be disconcerting, Kant also says that a disinterested pleasure similar to the pleasure in the beautiful is experienced when the ideas of reason pertaining to the totality of the cosmos are brought into play. This feeling that reason can subsume and capture even the totality of the immeasurable cosmos leads to the peculiar pleasure of the sublime. Both natural objects and manmade art can be judged to be beautiful.
Kant suggests that natural beauties are purest, but works of art are especially interesting because they result from human genius. Although art must be manmade and not natural, Kant holds that art is beautiful insofar as it imitates the beauty of nature. What makes great art truly great, though, is that it is the result of genius in the artist.
These can, of course, be combined together. For instance opera combines music and poetry into song, and combines this with theatre which Kant considers a form of painting. Kant deems poetry the greatest of the arts because of its ability to stimulate the imagination and understanding and expand the mind through reflection. However, if the question is which art advances culture the most, Kant thinks that painting is better than music. At best, such works can be interesting or provocative, but not truly beautiful and hence not truly art. This is because certain aspects of judgments of taste see 7a above are analogous in important respects to moral judgments.
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The immediacy and disinterestedness of aesthetic appreciation corresponds to the demand that moral virtue be praised even when it does not lead to tangibly beneficial consequences: it is good in itself. The free play of the faculties involved in appreciation of the beautiful reminds one of the freedom necessary for and presupposed by morality. And the universality and necessity involved in aesthetic judgments correspond to the universality and necessity of the moral law.
In short, Kant holds that a cultivated sensitivity to aesthetic pleasures helps prepare the mind for moral cognition. Aesthetic appreciation makes one sensitive to the fact that there are pleasures beyond the merely agreeable just as there are goods beyond the merely instrumental. Towards the end of his career, Kant allowed his collected lecture notes for his anthropology course to be edited and published as Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View Anthropology, for Kant, is simply the study of human nature. Pragmatic anthropology is useful, practical knowledge that students would need in order to successfully navigate the world and get through life.
The Anthropology is interesting in two very different ways. First, Kant presents detailed discussions of his views on issues related to empirical psychology, moral psychology, and aesthetic taste that fill out and give substance to the highly abstract presentations of his writings in pure theoretical philosophy. For instance, although in the theory of experience from Critique of Pure Reason Kant argues that we need sensory intuitions in order to have empirical cognition of the world, he does not explain in any detail how our specific senses—sight, hearing, touch, taste, smell—contribute to this cognition.
The Anthropology fills in a lot of this story. For instance, we learn that sight and hearing are necessary for us to represent objects as public and intersubjectively available.
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And we learn that touch is necessary for us to represent objects as solid, and hence as substantial. In the Anthropology Kant complicates this story, informing us that nature has implanted sentiments of compassion to incline us towards the good, even in the absence of a developed reason. Kant also supplements his moral theory through pedagogical advice about how to cultivate an inclination towards moral behavior.
The other aspect of the Anthropology and the student transcripts of his actual lectures that makes it so interesting is that the wealth and range of examples and discussions gives a much fuller picture of Kant the person than we can get from his more technical writings. The many examples present a picture of a man with wide-ranging opinions on all aspects of the human experience. There are discussions of dreams, humor, boredom, personality-types, facial expressions, pride and greed, gender and race issues, and more. We even get some fashion advice: it is acceptable to wear yellow under a blue coat, but gaudy to wear blue under a yellow coat.
Tim Jankowiak Email: timjankowiak gmail. Pre-Critical Thought Critique of Pure Reason , the book that would alter the course of western philosophy, was written by a man already far into his career.
Dogmatic Slumber, Synthetic A Priori Knowledge, and the Copernican Shift Although the early Kant showed a complete willingness to dissent from many important aspects of the Wolffian orthodoxy of the time, Kant continued to take for granted the basic rationalist assumption that metaphysical cognition was possible. Transcendental Idealism Transcendental idealism is a theory about the relation between the mind and its objects.
The Ideality of Space and Time Kant argues that space and time are a priori , subjective conditions on the possibility of experience, that is, that they are transcendentally ideal. The Deduction of the Categories After establishing the ideality of space and time and the distinction between appearances and things in themselves, Kant goes on to show how it is possible to have a priori cognition of the necessary features of appearances. Theory of Experience The Transcendental Deduction showed that it is necessary for us to make use of the categories in experience, but also that we are justified in making use of them.
Natural Science In addition to his work in pure theoretical philosophy, Kant displayed an active interest in the natural sciences throughout his career. Other Scientific Contributions In addition to his major contributions to physics, Kant published various writings addressing different issues in the natural sciences. The Categorical Imperative If a good will is one that forms its intentions on the basis of correct principles of action, then we want to know what sort of principles these are. Postulates of Practical Reason In Critique of Pure Reason , Kant had argued that although we can acknowledge the bare logical possibility that humans possess free will, that there is an immortal soul, and that there is a God, he also argued that we can never have positive knowledge of these things see 2g above.
The Beautiful and the Sublime Kant holds that there are three different types of aesthetic judgments: judgments of the agreeable, of the beautiful, and of the sublime. Theory of Art Both natural objects and manmade art can be judged to be beautiful. References and Further Reading a.
Critique of Pure Reason , trans. Paul Guyer and Allen Wood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Practical Philosophy , ed. Mary Gregor. Paul Guyer and Eric Matthews. Theoretical Philosophy , ed. David Walford. Theoretical Philosophy after , eds.