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Daniel Goleman. The media are hypersensitive to whatever is liable to capture the imagination of audiences, thus bypassing much that is produced in an academic mode. Emergence of proprietary metaphors In purer academic work in the older tradition, although a text as a whole may be copyrighted, this is not the case with the concepts, formula and theories it contains. In current practice especially in North America , both the text and its individual diagrams may be copyrighted, as is the practice with studies and materials generated by management consultants.

Names of conceptual frameworks may be trademarked, as in the case of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. In the case of eidetics, both the term and the 6 visual models presenting its essential features are copyrighted. This feature is notable in the top management journals. Even in an article of this kind, and despite judicious paraphrasing, it is a pertinent question as to what can be communicated about particular coping strategies without infringing copyright.

Reproduction of any diagram illustrating the Hermann Brain Dominance Instrument discussed above, would clearly constitute an infringement. It is probable that little more could be said on de Bono's hats and shoes without moving beyond the realm of legitimate comment as a "reviewer". Strict interpretation of the standard clause "No part of this publication may be reproduced Basically, if someone wants to know about the hats and shoes, and how to make use of them, the books must be purchased at whatever price the publisher sets.

More than that, an addendum indicates that to become "a certified licensed trainer based on Dr. To what extent is one free to present his approach in a training session without having been licensed to do so? Bandler and Grinder, The future development of the tertiary sector must necessarily focus on the opportunities of intellectual and cultural property. Copyright has been a major issue in the world of computer software. The development of new "metaphors" is explicitly recognized as a key to software development. Major legal proceedings in the USA continue around software based on the windows metaphor and first marketed by Apple.

The legal case now turns on the "look-and-feel" of the software interface. Xerox is now marketing software based on a rooms metaphor. Copyrighting software in the future may well focus specifically on the design metaphor and its isomorphs, since coding and functionality have proved so difficult to protect.

These issues will become especially problematic with virtual reality software now coming on the market given the many ways it will use visual imagery and expand the possibilities of visual metaphors. Reference should also be made to the skills of certain consultants in organizational development. Whether or not these are reflected in any package of copyrighted text and diagrams, bodies who could benefit from these skills are deprived of them because of the high cost of such consultancy. Access to such insights is reserved exclusively for those who can afford them.

Biblical Ambiguities: Metaphor, Semantics, and Divine Imagery - səhifə 8

They and their consultants thus effectively share in the evolution of proprietary languages. Another variant on the problem is that resulting from the "classification" of documents in the interests of national security or to secure some advantage over potential competitors.

American fusion scientists have, for example, long been placed at a disadvantage because most of their work has been classified. In comparison, their colleagues elsewhere have been free to publish. In , continuing such secrecy was recognized as stifling the exchange of ideas, inhibiting progress and limiting international cooperation International Herald Tribune, 29 September In the case of religions, "proprietary" may be understood in a different sense.

Religions are steeped in metaphor Van Noppen, Such metaphoric frameworks tend to specify particular coping strategies. The proprietary hold becomes clear when each makes mutually exclusive claims to be able to articulate an appropriate understanding of man's relationship to his spatio-temporal environment. Because of the subtlety of spiritual insights, such claims often have to articulated through specific metaphors, honed and valued by the religious culture in question.

Particular metaphors are the jealously guarded property of particular religions. The cross is effectively trademarked by Christianity. Attachment to particular metaphors may then prevent spiritual development McFague, or any effective dialogue between faiths. This continues to lead to violence on a large scale. Another striking example of what amounts to proprietary metaphors is that dedicated from a radical feminist perspective on male-dominated language.

Much of contemporary discourse can be presented as dominated by implicit gender- biased metaphors selected by males.

John Grinder NLP: Isomorphic Metaphor

The implications for coping strategies, planning and decision-making have been identified by Janis Birkeland The process whereby certain professions are officially recognized, highlights another approach to proprietary metaphors. In the case of professions eg medicine, architecture, etc with statutory functions recognized by law, some uses of language may come under the control of those professions. This then precludes other interpretations, as might be the case with healing professions not accepted by the medical establishment. But perhaps the most insidious example of proprietary metaphors is that relating to cultural or linguistic imperialism, of which the most obvious is the North-South situation, with its many micro-reflections amongst the marginalized in industrialized countries.

Many have noted the insensitivity with which English-speakers within the international community readily assume that their are no significant language or cultural problems associated with the use of English. Others have noted the vicious consequences of Euro- centric thinking. In both cases, part of the issue is the range of metaphors which then dominate often as part of the idiom , excluding the metaphors natural to other languages and cultures.

This then conditions cognitive response to the environment in the light of the culture of industrialized countries. Confronting coping repertories One of the tantalizing aspects of any comparison between different understandings of coping strategy repertoires, is the extent to which they map into each other. It is not difficult to identify corporate beaviours corresponding to those in Frydenberg's checklist. Whether developed for individuals or for organizations, some strategies are more or less common to two or more frameworks.

Some emphasize unique features totally ignored by others. Few are sensitive to the existence of other, perhaps complementary, approaches to the development of coping strategies. It would be foolish to rely exclusively on any one repertoire at this time. In this light, the scope of de Bono's repertoire might be usefully challenged by confrontation with strategies highlighting the importance of the affective dimension as stressed by the Frydenberg coping checklist.

Perhaps he should produce a book on Six Emotional Cloaks to complement the thinking hats and the action shoes. In each of his cases, to what extent do the developmental issues around the six different people "all living under one skin" relate to those of identifying and integrating the "subpersonalities" that are a prime concern of psychoanalysis and psychosythesis Rowan, ?

Frydendberg's 18 strategies could then usefully be compared with de Bono's three groups of 6. Are there no useful relationships to be found between the Frydenberg coping checklist and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator? Would all three not become of wider significance if their categories could be captured in a visual image to excite the imagination? There is a lesson to be learnt from the fact that many people, whether of western or eastern cultures, know their astrological "sign".

In his stress on shifting between strategies, de Bono points to the weakness of the straitjacket of personality typing. A richer perspective would focus on the repertoire of personality or coping modes which an individual could taken on under different circumstances. In the Myers-Briggs case, for example, the probability of each of the 16 coping modes being used would then be defined by a probability function that characterizes an individual or strategic dynamic. This recognizes that all modes are accessible to the individual or organization , but not equally.

Enneagram studies are helpful in explicitly recognizing flexible access to all modes as a developmental goal Riso, Individual or corporate identity is tehn associated with an integrative image of such a constrained dance between coping modes. It is only the richer metaphors, like dance, that can facilitate comprehension of that strategic posture.

Constraints on strategic integration in the future In such a context, an ambitious consultant would do best to develop his or her own metaphor-coded package in ways that ignore the work of predecessors. Each thus endeavours to create the impression of an adequate strategic repertoire. But the emergence of an appropriately ordered repertoire, relevant to both individual and collective coping especially at the global level , is completely undermined by the proprietary concerns of those best placed to ensure its comprehension.

In this transition period, a policy-maker feels relatively free to formulate coping proposals whether in speech or on paper. The vast quantity generated annually in this way has become quite indigestible Marien, With the increasing need for imagery to ensure comprehensibility by overloaded audiences, the issue becomes what images? It is even possible to envisage an alternative meeting design in which factional leaders would dialogue only through images. Participants would use support staff to locate appropriate images from a prepared image data base to enlighten, confound or seduce their adversaries -- pacing the meeting somewhat as in a chess tournament, with considerable time for reflection between "moves".

The conceptually sharpest images relevant to such a dialogue are those carefully pre- crafted by cartoonists, especially political cartoonists. Such cartoons are of course copyrighted -- as are the best photographs and videoclips. Expressed through the resultant configuration of images, the "proceedings" and conclusion of any such meeting would therefore raise major copyright problems. The problem of the transfer of patented technology from the North to those who need it in the South was a major issue during the recent UN Conference on Environment and Development Rio de Janeiro, Certain technologies are needed by poorer countries to improve their environmental and development strategies.

The issue for the future is when does the dissemination of copyrighted coping know-how become restricted in an analogous manner -- inhibiting collective ability to respond to the crises of the times. The question is whether copyright will evolve to the point that strategic wisdom can effectively be copyrighted? Even now, certain valued aphorisms are technically subject to copyright, as inspection of any published collection will show. In the case of technology, governments have responded to this dilemma by invoking "national security" clauses.

The case for a "global security" clause with respect to intellectual property remains to be articulated. This line of thinking evokes the spectre of the world being held to ransom by some strategic genius capable of copyrighting his or her insights -- if only in terms of the set of metaphors through which they are most adequately expressed.

Could a strategic Einstein copyright a "special theory of strategic coping"? Have the handful of major multinational management consultancy groups, capable of ensuring exclusive access to such genius, already developed an effective stranglehold on strategic coping know-how? Coping repertoires in the the public domain may effectively be second-rate.

Where comprehension and the ability to empower initiatives are the key to coping, such genius may to a large extent lie in the choice of an appropriate metaphor as advertisers so frequently demonstrate. De Bono, whatever the inadequacies of his approach, has moved some way down this track. His CoRT Thinking Programme of which the hats and shoes are modules is arguably the best available package, as demonstrated by its world-wide success in educational systems.

UNESCO, currently seeking insights into education for the 21st century, is as yet unable to recommend a package of equivalent sophistication. What are the options if de Bono's price is unacceptable? Clearly such consultant fantasies are unlikely to be fulfilled because institutions are obliged for political reasons to reject any form of "metaphoric imperialism" -- whatever the longer-term costs in strategic ineptness. Transcending constraints of proprietary metaphors It is possible that the copyright issue could be avoided by repackaging any strategic metaphor like de Bono's in terms of other metaphors -- six thinking spectacles, for example, or six action signature tunes.

Possibly one could switch to a differently numbered repertoire, with say 9 or 15 strategies, and reallocate the colours. The probable evolution of copyright in the light of the computer software issue suggests that such obvious loopholes will be quickly plugged. Conceptual isomorphs, whether or not they are labelled as "metaphors", will become subject to copyright as economic growth is forced to focus on the opportunities of the tertiary sector.

It is possible that all the good metaphors will be copyrighted by those with vested interests -- just as many of the words of good symbolic value have been trademarked. Such activity might even define a "quaternary" economic sector. The possibility of such constraints on the formulation and integration of coping strategies, whether for the individual or at the global level, raises a key question.

Is the issue the dissemination of strategic repertories, or rather is it empowering the generation of strategic repertoires? De Bono is selling a single repertoire packaged in a metaphor. As with IBM, he is endeavouring to capture a market -- effectively disempowering higher order creativity, creating dependence and "locking" customers into a particular approach. He is not selling the capacity to generate such a package the last module of which he chose to emphasize was written on a plane journey between London and Auckland.

And the need is precisely to empower people and groups to generate such repertoires. This would enable them to act through their own insights according to those metaphors that they identify as enhancing their flexibility in coping with their environment, especially within their own sub-cultures. Transcending metaphoric constraints means acquiring the ability to shift or dance between metaphors that offer integrative strategic insights. It is a case of being able to swing through metaphoric trees, rather than being confined to the epistemological branches of one of them. Expressed differently, although some consultants offer a strategic regime or diet, de Bono offers a menu for his restaurant.

But the issue for individuals or organizations is to be empowered to design and cook whatever meal corresponds to their needs and opportunities -- whether it is on a particular menu or not. References Richard Bandler and John Grinder. Reframing; neurolinguistic programming and the transformation of meaning.

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3 editions of this work

New York: Magination Press. The answer within: A clinical framework of Ericksonian hypnotherapy. Enchantment and intervention in family therapy: Training in Ericksonian hypnosis. Linden, J.

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Metaphoria: Metaphor and guided metaphor for psychotherapy and healing [Book review]. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 46 2 , — Loeber, R. Young children who commit crime: Epidemiology, developmental origins, risk factors, early interventions, and policy implications. Development and Psy-chopathology, 12, — Malgady, R.

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