Bruschweiler-Stern, N. Tronick, E. Baranger, M. Baranger, W. The Analytic Situation as a Dynamic Field. Ogden, T. Bick, E. The Language of Psycho-Analysis. Clinical Lectures on Klein and Bion. Freud's Self-Analysis. Experiences in Groups And Other Papers. Learning from Experience. Elements of Psycho-Analysis. Attention and Interpretation. Beyond Words: Interpretive Art Therapy. Attachment and Loss: Volume I: Attachment. Conflict and Compromise: Therapeutic Implications.
The Psychology and Treatment of Addictive Behavior. Psychoanalytic Studies of the Personality. First Contributions to Psycho-Analysis. Psychoanalysis and the War Neuroses. Letters of Sigmund Freud The Meaning of Illness. Thinking about lnfants and Young Children. Your Teenager. Ego Psychology and the Problem of Adaptation.
Sigmund Freud and The Psychoanalytic Therapy
Psychic Equilibrium and Psychic Change. The Freud-Klein Controversies The Psycho-Analysis of Children. Narrative of a Child Analysis. Envy and Gratitude and Other Works The Therapeutic Alliance. Thinking, Feeling, and Being. The Psycho-analytical Process. Sexual States of Mind. The Kleinian Development. Explorations in Autism. The suppressed madness of sane men: Forty-four Years of Exploring Psychoanalysis. Meltzer Ed. The Story of lnfant Development. Transference and Countertransference. Selected Contributions to Psycho-Analysis. Impasse and Interpretation. The Interpretation of Dreams in Clinical Work.
Essays in Honour of Arnold Cooper. Narrative Truth and Historical Truth. The Interpersonal World of the Infant. Psychoanalytic Practice, Volume 1: Principles. Psychoanalytic Practice, Volume 2: Clinical Studies. Lay Analysis: Life Inside the Controversy.
The Maturational Processes and the Facilitating Environment. Playing and Reality. Therapeutic Consultations in Child Psychiatry. Through Paediatrics to Psycho-Analysis. The Piggle. Holding and Interpretation. The Spontaneous Gesture.
Abend Warren S. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, , pp. Welsh Deepening the Treatment: Jane S. Mitchell and Lewis Aron. New York: Guilford Press, , pp. New York: Routledge, , pp. Jason Aronson, , pp. London: Routledge, , pp. New York: Columbia University Press, , pp. Socarides and Selma Kramer. Ralph Slovenko. Eagle, and David L. Levy and Lawrence B. Vaughan and Steven P. New York: W. Norton, , pp. Wallerstein and Leo Goldberger. London: Karnac Books, , pp. Stuttgart: Verlag Internationale Psychoanalyse, , pp. New Haven: Yale University Press, , pp. Fred Alford.
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Ithaca: Cornell University Press, , pp. Reid Meloy Hannibal: Thomas Harris. New York: Delacorte Press, , pp. Hardin and Daniel H. Aruffo, Segundo Ibarra and Karen R. Anni Bergman, in collabration with Maria F. Quick Search :. The patient, in a relaxed posture, is directed to say whatever comes to mind. Dreams , hopes, wishes, and fantasies are of interest, as are recollections of early family life. Generally the analyst simply listens, making comments only when, in his or her professional judgment , an opportunity for insight on the part of the patient arises.
In listening, the analyst attempts to maintain an attitude of empathic neutrality, a nonjudgmental stance designed to create a safe environment. The analyst asks that the analysand speak with utter honesty about whatever comes to awareness while interpreting the patterns and inhibitions that appear in the patient's speech and other behavior. A general rule in psychoanalytic treatment is that more insight-oriented techniques are to be used with healthier patients, whereas more supportive techniques are to be used with more disturbed patients.
The most common example of an insight-oriented technique is an interpretation, in which the analyst delivers a comment to the patient that describes one or more cluster of unconscious wishes, anxieties, and defenses. Analysts usually prefer to make more insight-oriented interventions when possible, as they feel that such interventions are usually less judgmental than other techniques. Currently, most psychoanalysts claim that analysis is most useful as a method in cases of neurosis and with character or personality problems.
Psychoanalysis is believed to be most useful in dealing with ingrained problems of intimacy and relationship and for those problems in which established patterns of life are problematic. As a therapeutic treatment, psychoanalysis generally takes three to five meetings a week and requires the amount of time for natural or normal maturational change three to seven years.
Analysis of previous randomised controlled trials have suggested that psychoanalytic treatment is more effective than the absence of treatment in specific psychiatric disorders. Much recent psychoanalytic work has been devoted to exploring the use of psychoanalytic principles and techniques in shorter face-to-face psychodynamic psychotherapy , and integrating psychoanalysis with other psychotherapeutic techniques such as those of cognitive behavior therapy Template:Fact. Empirical research on the efficacy of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy has also become prominent among psychoanalytic researchers.
An open-door review of outcome studies of psychoanalysis can be found here. Although psychoanalytic treatment used to be expensive, cost today ranges from as low as ten dollars a session with an analytic candidate in training at an institute to over dollars a session with a senior training analyst. Length of treatment varies. Full-fledged psychoanalysis, however, generally lasts longer- with an average of 5. Which treatment length is optimal depends on the individual's needs. Throughout the history of psychoanalysis, most psychoanalytic organizations have existed outside of the university setting, with a few notable exceptions.
Psychoanalytic training usually occurs at a psychoanalytic institute and may last approximately years. Training includes coursework, supervised psychoanalytic treatment of patients, and personal psychoanalysis lasting 4 or more years. Most psychoanalytic institutes require that applicants already possess a graduate degree. D , or medicine MD. A handful of institutes also accept applicants who have graduate degrees in nonclinical disciplines.
An ongoing debate in professional psychoanalysis concerns the prior qualifications candidates must have to enter analytic training. Freud believed that applicants from the humanities and many nonmedical disciplines are as well prepared as physicians for psychoanalytic training. Early in the history of psychoanalysis, prominent analytic organizations tried to limit psychoanalytic training to physicians.
Later, after extensive debates and legal battles, psychoanalytic training in most institutes was opened to nonmedical mental health professionals, such as psychologists and clinical social workers. Currently, access to training by applicants from nonclinical disciplines, such as literary studies and philosophy, is limited. A small number of institutes, citing Freud's belief that training in the humanities provides good preparation for analytic training, admit nonclinical applicants. However, there is an ongoing effort by analysts with prior training in mental health to restrict access to analytic institutes by such applicants, repeating the early monopoly on psychoanalytic training by physicians.
Psychoanalysis involves extended exploration of the self , a realization of the Delphian motto, "Know thyself". Today psychoanalytic ideas are imbedded in the culture, especially in childcare , education , literary criticism , and in psychiatry , particularly medical and non-medical psychotherapy. Though there is a mainstream of evolved analytic ideas , there are groups who more specifically follow the precepts of one or more of the later theoreticians.
Though the most commonly held image of a psychoanalytic session is one in which a single analyst works with a single client, 'group' sessions with two or more clients are not unknown. Carrying out psychoanalysis in groups can be motivated by economic factors individual analysis is time-consuming and expensive or by the belief that clients may benefit from witnessing the various client-client and analyst-client interactions.
In most forms of group-based analysis, the group is initially an artifact created by the analyst selecting the various members; the assumption is that the common relationship to the analyst will lead to the formation of a genuine group situation. Group psychotherapy of 'natural' groups e.
For example, Tori and Blimes found that defense mechanisms were valid in a normative sample of 2, Thais. The use of certain defense mechanisms was related to cultural values. For example Thais value calmness and collectiveness because of Buddhist beliefs , so they were low on regressive emotionality. Psychoanalysis also applies because Freud used techniques that allowed him to get the subjective perceptions of his patients.
He takes an objective approach by not facing his clients during his talk therapy sessions. His treatments had little to no structure for most cultures, especially Asian cultures. Therefore, it is more likely that Freudian constructs will be used in structured therapy Thompson, et al. In addition, Corey postulates that it will be necessary for therapist to help clients develop a cultural identity as well as an ego identity. Psychoanalytic constructs fit with constructs of other more structured therapies, and Firestone thinks psychotherapy should have more depth and involve both psychodynamic and cogitative-behavioral approaches.
For example, Corey states, that Ellis, the founder of Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy REBT would allow his clients to experience depression over a loss, such an emotion would be rational—often people will be irrational deny their feelings. Since Freudian constructs can fit with other psychotherapeutic and counseling approaches, it can also be adapted to a variety of cultures, but it can not be employed in its widest use as Freud and Firestone would advocate Firestone, ; Tori and Blimes ,.
Psychoanalytic constructs can be adapted and modified to both age and managed care through the use of play therapy such as art therapy , creative writing , Sand Tray Therapy , storytelling , bibliotherapy , and analytical psychodrama. In the 's, Anna Freud Sigmund Freud's daughter adapted psychoanalysis for children through play.
Using toys and games , she was able to enhance relationship with the child - Freud has been criticized for his, objective and disengaged, approach. When children play, they often engage in a make believe world where they can express their fears and fantasies, and they do so without censorship, so it resembles very much the technique of free association. Psychoanalytic play therapy allows the child and the counselor to access material in the unconscious, material that was avoided and forgotten.
This material is re-integrated into the conscience, and the counselor is able to work with the child and the family to address the trauma or issue that was forgotten. With adults, the term art therapy is used, instead of play, however they are synonymous. The counselor simply adapts art therapy to the age of the client. With children, a counselor may have a child draw a portrait of his self, and then tell a story about the portrait.
The counselor watches for re-occurring themes - regardless of whether it is with art or toys. With adults, the counselor may work one on one or in a group and have clients do various art activities like painting or clay to express themselves - toys here would not probably not be age appropriate, and children stop pretend play as they transition into adolescence. Bibliocounseling involves selecting stories from books that children can identify with similar issues. Through this story, a child will be more likely to not feel defensive and will work to find alternative solutions to problems.
Storytelling is similar, the counselor may tell a story but not use a name, and instead he may address the child with each new sentence using his name. For example, He may say, "next, Eric, the little boy had dream about a mouse that was not like the other mice Unlike traditional psychoanalysis, play therapy takes much shorter time span; which allow insurance companies to cover it for their clients.
Even more, it provides more structure to the process allowing for specific measurable goals. Psychoanalytic theory will be applied in more preventative ways, such as educating parents on how to best meet the needs of the child and enhance the child's development and growth. Lastly, more advocates may use homework assignments such as journal writing to save time Thompson et al. According to a book, review by Berman the writing cure provides an analysis of research that supports expressive writing as a way to integrate cognitions and work through trauma.
People who write about traumatic events experience more self control. Popper argues that it is not scientific because it is not falsifiable. Janov claims that psychoanalysis intellectualizes the feeling process which only strengthens defenses.
The other schools of psychology have produced alternative methods of psychotherapy, including behavior therapy , cognitive therapy , primal therapy and person centered psychotherapy. Exchanges between critics and defenders of psychoanalysis have often been so heated that they have come to be characterized as the Freud Wars. Some defenders of psychoanalysis suggest that its logics and formulations are more akin to those found in the humanities than those proper to the physical and biological sciences, though Freud himself tried to base his clinical formulations on a hypothetical neurophysiology of energy transformations, an approach that was systematized by David Rapaport.
Rapaport argued that psychoanalytic theory can be organized systematically if it is seen in relation to the dynamics of libidinal energy that emerge from the drives and conflict with controls and defenses. By the 's, psychoanalytic writers like Roy Schafer and George Klein treated psychoanalysis as two separate theories, one, a theory of energy transformations that lacked empirical validation and the other, an "experience-near" theory of human intentionality that was philosophically independent of the reductionism and determinism of 19th century science as seen in the works of Helmholz and Hobbes.
Reductionism and determinism were recognized as contrary to the clinical methods and goals of psychological liberation. Psychoanalysis as a collection of clinical theories was recast as a theory of interpretation and development with a focus on understanding how the varieties of nonconscious dispositions and actions influence a person's life in the form of transference and resistance. In a closely related argument, the philosopher Paul Ricoeur argued that psychoanalysis can be considered a type of textual interpretation or hermeneutics.
Like cultural critics and literary scholars, Ricoeur contended, psychoanalysts spend their time interpreting the nuances of language- the language of their patients. Ricoeur claimed that psychoanalysis emphasizes the polyvocal or many-voiced qualities of language, focusing on utterances that mean more than one thing.
A New Freudian Synthesis: Clinical Process in the Next Generation
Ricoeur classified psychoanalysis as a hermeneutics of suspicion. By this he meant that psychoanalysis searches for deception in language, and thereby destabilizes our usual reliance on clear, obvious meanings. The philosopher Jacques Derrida took a similar position. Derrida used psychoanalytic theory to question what he called the metaphysics of presence , a body of philosophical theory which assumes that the meaning of utterances can be pinned down and made fully evident. Psychoanalysts have often complained about the significant lack of theoretical agreement among analysts of different schools.
Many authors have attempted to integrate the various theories, with limited success. An important consequence of the wide variety of psychoanalytic theories is that psychoanalysis is difficult to criticize as a whole. Many critics have attempted to offer criticisms of psychoanalysis that were in fact only criticisms of specific ideas present only in one or more theories, rather than in all of psychoanalysis. For example, it is common for critics of psychoanalysis to focus on Freud's ideas, even though only a fraction of contemporary analysts still hold to Freud's major theses.
As the psychoanalytic researcher Drew Westen puts it, "Critics have typically focused on a version of psychoanalytic theory—circa at best—that few contemporary analysts find compelling In so doing, however, they have set the terms of the public debate and have led many analysts, I believe mistakenly, down an indefensible path of trying to defend a 75 to year-old version of a theory and therapy that has changed substantially since Freud laid its foundations at the turn of the century.
An early criticism of psychoanalysis was that its theories were based on little quantitative and experimental research, and instead relied almost exclusively on the clinical case study method. An increasing amount of psychoanalytic research from academic psychologists and psychiatrists who have worked to quantify and measure psychoanalytic concepts has begun to address this criticism. However, a survey of scientific research by Seymour Fisher and R. Greenberg showed that while personality traits corresponding to Freud's oral, anal, Oedipal, and genital phases can be observed, they cannot be observed as stages in the development of children, nor it be confirmed that such traits in adults result from childhood experiences.
Likewise there is failure to demonstrate that insight, expressed in Freudian terms as making the unconscious conscious, improves a person's behavior or increases their level of functioning, there being strong indications that other factors are involved. Fuller Torrey , considered by some a leading American psychiatrist, writing in Witchhdoctors and Psychiatrists stated that psychoanalytic theories have no more scientific basis than the theories of traditional native healers, "witchdoctors" or modern "cult" alternatives such as est.
Research on psychodynamic treatment of some populations shows mixed results. Research by analysts such as Bertram Karon and colleagues at Michigan State University had suggested that when trained properly, psychodynamic therapists can be effective with schizophrenic patients. More recent research casts doubt on these claims. The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team PORT report argues in its Recommendaton 22 against the use of psychodynamic therapy in cases of schizophrenia, noting that more trials are necessary to verity its effectiveness.
However, it has been noted that the PORT recommendation is based on the opinions of clinicians rather than on empirical data, and empirical data exist that contradict this recommendation. Further, data also suggest that psychoanalysis is not effective and possibly even detrimental in the treatment of sex offenders. Although the popularity of psychoanalysis was in decline during the 's and early 's, prominent psychoanalytic institutes have experienced an increase in the number of applicants in recent years.
In his effort to understand what caused the hysterical symptoms he was trying to treat, Freud discovered that symptoms were induced by unconscious psychic processes related to infantile sexuality. The study of his own dreams confirmed the extent to which the unconscious determination predominated. He was also able to show the presence of the unconscious psychic processes in several phenomena slips of the tongue, parapraxes, jokes which had not been adequately explained by the psychology of consciousness. In , Freud gave psychoanalysis a complex definition which distinguishes three aspects:.
Psychoanalysis is the name of a procedure for the investigation of mental processes which are almost inaccessible in any other way and can be the object of serious investigation. This procedure is called free association. Thus appear and organize the phenomena known as the transference relationship to the analyst, which constitute the analytic process. Psychoanalysis is a method of treatment of a certain range of psychic disorders, in particular, neurotic disorders.
In fact, the therapeutic dimension of analysis the analytic treatment emerges from the psychic transformations induced by the awareness of the unfolding process: the modification of the relationship of the Ego to the Unconscious translates into —in addition to the relief from psychic suffering—an increased capacity to love and work. All other psychoanalytic treatments are to a greater or lesser degree derived from this model of treatment, respecting the range of clinical diversity. Psychoanalysis is a theory organizing the knowledge obtained from practical experience, which it then inspires, in return.
Because it is primarily concerned with what is beyond consciousness, that is, unconscious psychic reality, Freud called the theory Metapsychology. Psychoanalysis is concerned not only with the singular experience of an individual analysis, but is equally preoccupied with and applied to the entirety of human phenomena in which the unconscious is involved.
From No Subject - Encyclopedia of Psychoanalysis. Jump to: navigation , search. File:Freud Sofa. JPG Freud's patients would lie on this couch during psychoanalysis.