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The progress made in recent years in computational sciences and advanced material preparation techniques has dramatically improved our knowledge of fundamental properties and increased our ability to produce materials with highly-tailored magnetic properties, even down to the nanoscale dimension. Containing approximately chapters written and edited by acknowledged world leaders in the field, The Handbook of Magnetism and Advanced Magnetic Materials provides a state-of-the-art, comprehensive overview of our current understanding of the fundamental properties of magnetically ordered materials, and their use in a wide range of sophisticated applications.

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Permissions Request permission to reuse content from this site. Magnetization dynamics including thermal fluctuations: basic phenomenology, fast remagnetization processes and transitions over high energy barriers. Polarized neutron reflectivity and scattering of magnetic nanostructures and spintronic materials. Undetected location. NO YES.

Quantum magnetism in molecular spin ladders probed with muon-spin spectroscopy

About the Author Permissions Table of contents Extra. Selected type: Hardcover. To an excellent approximation but ignoring some quantum effectssee quantum electrodynamics , Maxwell's equations which simplify to the Biot-Savart law in the case of steady currents describe the origin and behavior of the fields that govern these forces. Therefore magnetism is seen whenever electrically charged particles are in motion for example, from movement of electron s in an electric current , or in certain cases from the orbital motion of electrons around an atom's nucleus.

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  • They also arise from "intrinsic" magnetic dipole s arising from quantum effects, i. The same situations which create magnetic fields charge moving in a current or in an atom, and intrinsic magnetic dipoles are also the situations in which a magnetic field has an effect, creating a force. Following is the formula for moving charge; for the forces on an intrinsic dipole, see magnetic dipole. Because this is a cross product, the force is perpendicular to both the motion of the particle and the magnetic field.

    It follows that the magnetic force does no work on the particle; it may change the direction of the particle's movement, but it cannot cause it to speed up or slow down.

    Spin–orbit coupled molecular quantum magnetism realized in inorganic solid

    One tool for determining the direction of the velocity vector of a moving charge, the magnetic field, and the force exerted is labeling the index finger "V", the middle finger "B", and the thumb "F" with your right hand. When making a gun-like configuration with the middle finger crossing under the index finger , the fingers represent the velocity vector, magnetic field vector, and force vector, respectively.

    See also right hand rule. Lenz's law gives the direction of the induced electromotive force emf and current resulting from electromagnetic induction.

    German physicist Heinrich Lenz formulated it in A very common source of magnetic field shown in nature is a dipole , with a " South pole " and a " North pole "; terms dating back to the use of magnets as compass es, interacting with the Earth's magnetic field to indicate North and South on the globe. Since opposite ends of magnets are attracted, the north pole of a magnet is attracted to the south pole of another magnet. Interestingly, this concept of opposite polaraties attracting wasn't used in the naming convention for the earth's magnetic field, so the earth's magnetic north pole in Canada attracts the magnetic north pole of a compass see North Magnetic Pole.

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    A magnetic field contains energy , and physical systems move toward configurations with lower energy. Therefore, when placed in a magnetic field, a magnetic dipole tends to align itself in opposed polarity to that field, thereby canceling the net field strength as much as possible and lowering the energy stored in that field to a minimum. For instance, two identical bar magnets placed side-to-side normally line up North to South, resulting in a much smaller net magnetic field, and resist any attempts to reorient them to point in the same direction.

    The energy required to reorient them in that configuration is then stored in the resulting magnetic field, which is double the strength of the field of each individual magnet. This is, of course, why a magnet used as a compass interacts with the Earth's magnetic field to indicate North and South.

    Prof. Dr. P. Kögerler, Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Anorganische Chemie, RWTH Aachen

    An alternative, equivalent formulation, which is often easier to apply but perhaps offers less insight, is that a magnetic dipole in a magnetic field experiences a torque and a force which can be expressed in terms of the field and the strength of the dipole i. For these equations, see magnetic dipole. Magnetic monopoles Since a bar magnet gets its ferromagnetism from electrons distributed evenly throughout the bar, when a bar magnet is cut in half, each of the resulting pieces is a smaller bar magnet.

    Even though a magnet is said to have a north pole and a south pole, these two poles cannot be separated from each other. A monopole — if such a thing exists — would be a new and fundamentally different kind of magnetic object.

    Molecular magnetism

    It would act as an isolated north pole, not attached to a south pole, or vice versa. Monopoles would carry "magnetic charge" analogous to electric charge. Despite systematic searches since , as of , they have never been observed, and could very well not exist. Nevertheless, some theoretical physics models predict the existence of these magnetic monopoles. Paul Dirac observed in that, because electricity and magnetism show a certain symmetry , just as quantum theory predicts that individual positive or negative electric charges can be observed without the opposing charge, isolated South or North magnetic poles should be observable.

    Can Humans Sense Magnetic Fields?

    Using quantum theory Dirac showed that if magnetic monopoles exist, then one could explain the quantization of electric chargethat is, why the observed elementary particles carry charges that are multiples of the charge of the electron. Certain grand unified theories predict the existence of monopoles which, unlike elementary particles, are solitons localized energy packets.

    The initial results of using these models to estimate the number of monopoles created in the big bang contradicted cosmological observations — the monopoles would have been so plentiful and massive that they would have long since halted the expansion of the universe.