The clinker-to-cement ratio percentage of clinker compared to other non-clinker components has an impact on the properties of cement so standards determine the type and proportion of alternative main constituents that can be used. The ISO series [ 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ] sets out three types of labeling scheme: All three consist of the sustainability performances of the examined product [ 14 ], considering its consequences on the environment and human health.
However, there are not yet recognized or accredited methodologies to issue such labels: The most frequent adopted methods are based on the interrelation matrices, graphs and check lists, and multi-criteria decision theory [ 15 ]. Interrelation matrices permit one to identify and assess the interactions of a project with the surrounding environment.
The most known method is the Leopold matrix [ 16 ], whose elements represent the environmental impact of each task by means of a couple of values the coefficients of importance and magnitude. It permits one to compare different alternatives, identifying the projects with maximum positive or negative impact. The procedure does not consider the interaction between effects, and does not give criteria to define the importance and magnitude coefficients, therefore it does not ensure reliable results.
Graphs or networks derive from interrelation matrices, but they do not allow quantitative and comparative analyses. Check lists consist of qualitative environmental, social and economic elements or quantitative reference lists to be considered in the calculation of impacts.
The Environmental Evaluation System, known also as the Battelle method [ 17 , 18 ], is the best known. This method does not consider existing uncertainties between objective and subjective values of indicators and their functions. Moreover, it does not consider the possibility of interaction with the community [ 19 ] for defining parameters, especially in case of human and social factors. In this context, the Analytic Hierarchy Process AHP is particularly suitable when most costs and benefits are intangible, and it is not possible to compare economic data.
This last methodology has been used in the paper, which compares the environmental, human health and social effects [ 20 ] of cement, the most used material on the world [ 21 ] for structure and infrastructure construction [ 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 ].
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The results permit to compare the sustainability of the cements, and identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the examined powders. The methodology herein adopted could be efficiently used and modified to analyze other products or services: The authors considered four gray cements prepared by four different Italian companies, which are not named for reasons of confidentiality.
All cements guarantee Although each clinker content is not known by the authors, however the powders are comparable because they represent specific, detailed and homogeneous chemical and mechanical characteristics. As regard to as the environmental and social criteria, the study considers the impact categories listed in Table 1: According to the standard EN [ 29 ], these categories describe environmental impacts, resource use, and waste categories related to a production.
They are therefore representative of environmental and human health consequences of a manufacturing process. As regard to the human health protection criteria, the authors considered the most common risks for construction industry workers [ 30 ]: All values are deduced from the internal Document of Risk Evaluation prepared by each company, as required by the Italian standard about the safety of workers [ 31 ].
Examined risks have been classified according to the standardization proposed by the Italian Ministry of Labour [ 35 ]. For the economic issues, the authors considered the unit price of cements, listed on the pricelist of each cement plant not herein disclosed due to privacy reasons. Table 2 lists the human health and economic data. The impact categories listed in Table 1 and Table 2 have been considered as decision criteria to choose the most sustainable cement powder by mean the AHP method. It consists of decomposition of decision problem what is the best, or most sustainable, cement?
Each element of the hierarchy could be referred to any aspect of the decision problem e. Figure 1 represents four levels of analysis. The hierarchical decomposition consists of three criteria criterion A, B and C and five sub-criteria sub-criterion 1 to 5 to be applied to three alternatives. Scale of importance by Saaty [ 36 ].
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The scale of importance shown in Table 3 allows the decider composing the matrices pairwise comparisons C , whose e ij elements means the preference of i with respect to j and the e ji are reciprocal of e ij Table 4. As consequence of this, such matrices are square and have dimensions equal to the number of variables O i considered elements in the hierarchical level under consideration.
For each hierarchical level, the decision maker generates as many pairwise comparison matrices as elements of the upper level.
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From each of these matrices, elements of the considered hierarchical level are ordered respect to each involved criterion of the upper level. A pairwise comparison matrix is consistent if any three elements e ij , e ik , e jk satisfies Equation 1 [ 37 ]:. According to the Pareto efficiency, the analysis is based on optimum allocation of available resources [ 38 ].
The hierarchical analysis is mathematically more complex than classic multi-criteria analysis [ 39 ], but it simplifies the work of decision maker, which responds to simple and same type questions, the pairwise comparisons. Subjective elements, as the choice of the relative importance scale, and the definition of the acceptable threshold inconsistency, are present in the hierarchical analysis and they limit the action of decision maker, but the method ensures an inclusive approach to multi-criteria problems.
Indeed, it allows the evaluation of multiple aspects, as happens in construction bids, where legislative, technical, economic and environmental issues should be considered.
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Jones] on garnet. This book. This book reviews the implications of the new European standard for cements. It brings together contributions from leading experts. On other hand, the method is decried as being arbitrary in the assignment of the relative weights and influenced in the result by the number of considered alternatives.
As regard as the first weak point, the authors interviewed technicians from different backgrounds, experts in the fields of environment, human health and economy i. As regard as the latter weak point, the analysis considers only ten impact categories instead of 26 defined by [ 29 ], and limits human health and economic analysis to the most considered variables at international level [ 40 ]. The study focused on the choice of the most sustainable cement powder to be used for cement bound mixtures e. The four cement powders are identified by the nomenclature cement n , with n varying from 1 to 4, and they are produced by different plants numbered according to the cement nomenclature i.
The hierarchy defined by the authors involves four level of analysis, as represented in Figure Hierarchical decomposition used for the analysis. As regard as the priorities relating to the three criteria of level II, pairwise comparisons gave the results shown in Table 5. Thirty two 32 technicians have participated in the AHP analysis: The geometric mean has been used to aggregate individual judgements and obtain pairwise comparison matrices. Each element c ij derives from application of the Saaty method [ 36 ]: Each element x ij of the normalized pairwise comparison matrix for level II N, II is obtained by dividing each element c ij by the sum of each column of pairwise comparison matrix Equation Table 6 allowed the calculation of weights to be related to each criterion of level II.
Weights w ij have been obtained by Equation Random Consistency Index [ 36 ]. The analysis of consistency for level II gave the results listed in Table 9 l max is 3. The results listed in Table 9 satisfy the condition proposed by Saaty [ 36 ]: As regard as the priorities relating to criteria of level III, pairwise comparisons for environment analysis gave the results shown in Table The analysis of consistency of level III, environment analysis gave the results listed in Table For the first one the results are based on the pairwise comparison matrix for level II, shown below in Table As regard as the priorities relating to criteria of level IV, pairwise comparisons for atmosphere analysis gave the results shown in Table The analysis of consistency of level IV, atmosphere analysis gave the results listed in Table At the end of the hierarchical analysis involving all sub-criteria, the cements have been compared.
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