This item is not available for sale on this site. He spent his first decade imaging from his home using a portable setup. With advances in Internet accessibility and worsening light pollution at home, Gendler began imaging remotely in from observatories in the southwestern United States and later in Australia. Gendler now spends much of his time mining professional astronomical archives and assembling unique composite images from a wide variety of data sources, including the Hubble Space Telescope, Japan's 8.
In , he was featured in the PBS documentary Seeing in the Dark by Timothy Ferris, who referred to Gendler as "one of the great astrophotographers in all of history. Jay GaBany, by profession, is an eCommerce product manager working in California and the recipient of five patents for innovations in his field. Over the last decade he has earned a reputation as an elite astrophotographer. His work has been highly recognized internationally. He has also distinguished himself by his collaborations with professional astronomers such as his work with Dr.
David Martinez-Delgado on tidal streams produced by galaxy mergers. Fitzpatrick, P. Jones, C. Knellwolf and I. McCalman eds. London: Routledge, p.
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In Hamowy, Ronald ed. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Although today we can easily find much to criticize about the Dutch Republic, it remains a crucial early experiment in toleration, limited government, and commercial capitalism Dutch shipping, banking, commerce, and credit raised living standards for the rich and the poor alike and for the first time created that characteristically modern social phenomenon, a middle class Libertarians value the Dutch Republic as a historical phenomenon not because it represented any sort of perfection, but above all because it demonstrated to several generations of intellectuals the practicality of allowing citizens greater liberties than were customarily accorded them, which in turn contributed to producing what we now know as classical liberalism.
Mises Daily. Retrieved 30 August As the modern age began, rulers started to shake free of age-old customary constraints on their power. Royal absolutism became the main tendency of the time.
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The kings of Europe raised a novel claim: they declared that they were appointed by God to be the fountainhead of all life and activity in society. Accordingly, they sought to direct religion, culture, politics, and, especially, the economic life of the people.
To support their burgeoning bureaucracies and constant wars, the rulers required ever-increasing quantities of taxes, which they tried to squeeze out of their subjects in ways that were contrary to precedent and custom. The first people to revolt against this system were the Dutch. After a struggle that lasted for decades, they won their independence from Spain and proceeded to set up a unique polity. The United Provinces, as the radically decentralized state was called, had no king and little power at the federal level. Making money was the passion of these busy manufacturers and traders; they had no time for hunting heretics or suppressing new ideas.
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Thus de facto religious toleration and a wide-ranging freedom of the press came to prevail. Devoted to industry and trade, the Dutch established a legal system based solidly on the rule of law and the sanctity of property and contract. Taxes were low, and everyone worked. The Dutch "economic miracle" was the wonder of the age. Thoughtful observers throughout Europe noted the Dutch success with great interest.
Liberalism has many meanings, but in its classical sense it is a philosophy based on individual freedom.
History has long taught that our modern sensibility comes from the eighteenth century Enlightenment. In recent decades, historians have seen the Dutch Enlightenment of the seventeenth century as the root of the wider Enlightenment. Socialist Worker.
Retrieved 6 May Until the 17th century, commissioning works of art was largely the preserve of the church , monarchs and aristocrats. The emergence of a powerful and wealthy middle class in Holland , though, produced a radical change in patronage as the new Dutch bourgeoisie bought art.
For the first time, the direction of art was shaped by relatively broadly-based demand rather than religious dogma or royal whim, and the result was the birth of a large-scale open free art market which today's dealers and collectors would find familiar. Retrieved 11 November The first major innovation was the foundation of the Dutch East India Company VOC , the world's first publicly traded company , in As the first listed company the first company to be ever listed on an official stock exchange , the VOC was the first company to actually issue stock and bonds to the general public.
Considered by many experts to be the world's first truly modern multinational corporation , the VOC was also the first permanently organized limited-liability joint-stock company , with a permanent capital base.
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The Dutch merchants were the pioneers in laying the basis for modern corporate governance. The VOC is often considered as the precursor of modern corporations , if not the first truly modern corporation. It was the VOC that invented the idea of investing in the company rather than in a specific venture governed by the company. With its pioneering features such as corporate identity first globally-recognized corporate logo , entrepreneurial spirit, legal personhood , transnational multinational operational structure, high stable profitability, permanent capital fixed capital stock , freely transferable shares and tradable securities , separation of ownership and management , and limited liability for both shareholders and managers, the VOC is generally considered a major institutional breakthrough and the model for the large-scale business enterprises that now dominate the global economy.
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The second major innovation was the creation of the world's first fully functioning financial market , with the birth of a fully fledged capital market. The Dutch were also the first to effectively use a fully-fledged capital market including the bond market and the stock market to finance companies such as the VOC and the WIC. It was in seventeenth-century Amsterdam that the global securities market began to take on its modern form.
While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they didn't develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fully fledged capital market : corporate shareholders. Dutch investors were the first to trade their shares at a regular stock exchange.
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The buying and selling of these shares of stock in the VOC became the basis of the first stock market. It was in the Dutch Republic that the early techniques of stock-market manipulation were developed. The Dutch pioneered stock futures , stock options , short selling , bear raids , debt-equity swaps, and other speculative instruments.
Amsterdam businessman Joseph de la Vega 's Confusion of Confusions was the earliest book about stock trading. The third major innovation was the establishment of the Bank of Amsterdam Amsterdamsche Wisselbank in Dutch in , which led to the introduction of the concept of bank money.
The Bank of Amsterdam was arguably the world's first central bank.
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